How Is Kerosene Produced At An Oil Refinery Cracked?
Kerosene is a type of fuel that is widely used for aviation, heating, and lighting. It is derived from crude oil, which is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons and other substances. Crude oil needs to be refined before it can be used as kerosene or other products.
One of the main processes involved in refining crude oil is cracking. Cracking is a chemical reaction that breaks down large and heavy hydrocarbon molecules into smaller and lighter ones. This increases the yield of useful products such as gasoline, diesel, and kerosene from a given amount of crude oil.
How Is Kerosene Produced At An Oil Refinery Cracked
There are different methods of cracking crude oil, such as thermal cracking, catalytic cracking, and hydrocracking. Thermal cracking uses high temperatures and pressures to break down the hydrocarbons. Catalytic cracking uses a catalyst, which is a substance that speeds up the reaction without being consumed. Hydrocracking uses hydrogen and a catalyst to break down the hydrocarbons and remove impurities such as sulfur and nitrogen.
Kerosene is mainly produced by catalytic cracking and hydrocracking. These methods produce kerosene with a high octane number, which is a measure of how well the fuel burns in an engine. Kerosene also has a low freezing point, which makes it suitable for cold climates and high altitudes.
Kerosene is an important product of oil refining because it has many applications and benefits. It is used as jet fuel for airplanes, as heating oil for homes and businesses, and as lamp oil for illumination. It is also used as a solvent, a cleaning agent, and a pesticide. Kerosene is a versatile and valuable fuel that is produced by cracking crude oil at an oil refinery.
Kerosene is also a significant product in the global oil market. According to Eurostat, the EU consumed about 36.5 million tonnes of kerosene in 2020, of which 30.7 million tonnes were imported[^1^]. The main use of kerosene in the EU was for aviation, which accounted for 94.8 % of the total consumption[^1^]. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the consumption of jet kerosene dropped by 56.4 % from 2019 to 2020[^1^].
According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), the production cost and break-even crude oil price for sustainable aviation fuels (SAFs) are higher than those for fossil jet kerosene[^2^]. SAFs are fuels that are derived from renewable sources such as biomass, waste, or synthetic gas and can reduce greenhouse gas emissions from aviation. The IEA estimates that SAFs could account for 10 % of global jet fuel demand by 2030 if supported by policies and investments[^2^].
Japan is another major consumer and producer of kerosene in the world. According to Statista, Japan produced about 11.7 million kiloliters of kerosene in 2021, which was a decrease from about 18.8 million kiloliters in 2019[^3^]. The main use of kerosene in Japan was for heating, especially in rural areas where natural gas or electricity are not widely available[^3^]. Kerosene heaters are also popular in Japan because they are portable and easy to use. 0efd9a6b88