The result of extensive scholarship and consultation with leading scholars, this text introduces students to twenty-four theorists and compares and contrasts their theories on how we develop as individuals. Emphasizing the theories that build upon the developmental tradition established by Rousseau, this text also covers theories in the environmental/learning tradition.
For courses in Theories of Development at the undergraduate or graduate level. As a supplement to Child/Life Span/Adolescent Development courses or for any course where instructors need additional coverage of developmental theories.
The result of extensive scholarship and consultation with leading scholars, written in an engaging narrative for undergraduates and graduates alike, this text introduces students to twenty-four different theorists and compares and contrasts their theories on how we develop as individuals. Emphasizing the theories that follow and build upon the developmental tradition established by Rousseau, this text also covers theories in the environmental/learning tradition.
This theory differs considerably from other child development theories because it gives no consideration to internal thoughts or feelings. Instead, it focuses purely on how experience shapes who we are.
Within philosophy, the capability approach has been employed to the development of several conceptual and normative theories within, most prominently, development ethics, political philosophy, public health ethics, environmental ethics and climate justice, and philosophy of education. This proliferation of capability literature has led to questions concerning what kind of framework it is (section 1); how its core concepts should be defined (section 2); how it can be further specified for particular purposes (section 3); what is needed to develop the capability approach into an account of social justice (section 4); how it relates to non-Western philosophies (section 5); and how it can be and has been applied in practice (section 6).
Building on its core of central concepts and normative commitments, the capability approach can be developed into more specific capability theories. As Robeyns (2017, chapter 1) argues, some specifications are necessary to make, such as what the purpose of the theory is, what capabilities or functionings are normatively relevant, and whether to focus on capabilities or functionings. Other specifications are optional in the sense that whether we need them depends on the particular capability theory we are developing, including how to weigh different capabilities against each other and what other normative concerns that the theory should take into consideration. In this section, we explain some of the choices that need to or can be made when developing a capability theory.
Moreover, it would be a mistake to think that there can be only one capability theory of justice; on the contrary, the open nature of the capability approach allows for the development of a family of capability theories of justice, including accounts proposed by Anderson (1999) and Claassen (2018). But this prompts the question: what is needed to develop a full capability theory of justice, and which of these aspects have already been developed by theorists of justice?
Cognitive development theories are also very relevant to the field of academic advising. Based on the work of Piaget, these theories 'examine how people think, reason, and make meaning out of their experiences' (Evans, 2003, p. 186). Cognitive development is also viewed as sequential and 'development occurs when [an individual's] cognitive structure is changed, thus enabling new ways of incorporating experience' (Creamer, 2000, p. 23). Because cognitive structures vary from one individual to another, individuals may have very different views of a single event (Creamer and Creamer, 1994).
Numerous other cognitive development theories exist which pertain to student development. According to Creamer and Creamer (1994), knowledge of these theories can provide academic advisors with a better understanding of 'students' comments and queries expressing widely differing views of seemingly similar situations. These theories also help us to understand students' expressions of confusion over complex events or dilemmas. Simplistic views of the world may lead students to simplistic solutions, such as career choices that do not fit known personal attributes' (p. 18). Typology theories are not theories of development but rather indicate differences between personality types and how individuals relate to or adapt to their educational and work environments. These theories categorize the differences between individuals and their learning styles, but do not ascribe value judgments to them (Evans, 2003). An example of typology theory is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, which is effective in explaining behavioral variations amongst individuals. According to Creamer (2000), an awareness of typology theory may assist students and advisors in understanding individual students' reactions to the varying teaching styles they encounter throughout their educational experience. Finally, career development theories are also pertinent to academic advising and are connected with the appropriate choice of career when taking into consideration numerous variables including an individual's age, experience, values, personality, social and family goals, etc. (Creamer, 2000). Among these theories is Holland's vocational personality type, which emphasizes the notion of ' congruence, that is, the theoretical implications for satisfaction and growth of the individual given the closeness of fit between the individual's personality type and the occupational type' (Creamer, p. 25).Although these theories can provide an important foundation for understanding student advisees, Smith (1999) cautions advisors to be aware of the gender, cultural and social biases which may be represented by many of the aformentioned cogntive and psychological stage theories. Since the majority of these theories were formed in research undertaken in a Western context and with male subjects, they may not be applicable to female students, minority students, non-traditional aged students, gay or lesbian students, or students of different ethnic, cultural, or religious backgrounds (Creamer, 2000). Furthermore, Smith (1999) cites Rutter and Rutter's criticism that such models concentrate 'on the universals of development rather than individual difference...While there may be some universals of growth when we come to examine the individual life things are rarely the straight forward.' (p. 15 and 16).
The aforementioned theories, and Chickering's psychosocial theory of student identity development in particular, have played an important role in the evolution of academic advising approaches and the connection between advising and teaching (Creamer, 2000). The most well-known of the approaches, prescriptive advising and developmental advising, were terms coined by Crookston in the early 1970s.
Educational psychology can influence programs, curricula, and lesson development, as well as classroom management approaches. For example, educators can use concepts from educational psychology to understand and address the ways rapidly changing technologies both help and harm their students' learning. In addition, educational psychologists play an important role in educating teachers, parents or guardians, and administrators about best practices for learners who struggle with conventional education methods.
OBJECTIVE: In the context of the importance of valid self-report measures to research and evidence-based practice in social work, an argument-based approach to validity is presented and the concept of developmental validity introduced. Cognitive development theories are applied to the self-report process of children and cognitive pretesting is reviewed as a methodology to advance the validity of self-report instruments for children. An application of cognitive pretesting is presented in the development of the Elementary School Success Profile. METHOD: Two phases of cognitive pretesting were completed to gather data about how children read, interpret and answer self-report items. RESULTS: Cognitive pretesting procedures identified validity problems with numerous items leading to modifications. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive pretesting framed by an argument-based approach to validity holds significant potential to improve the developmental validity of child self-report instruments.
A central goal in developmental science is to explain the emergence of new behavioral forms. Researchers consider potential sources of behavioral change depending partly on their theoretical perspective. This chapter reviews one perspective, dynamic systems theory, which emphasizes the interactions among multiple components to drive behavior and developmental change. To illustrate the central concepts of dynamic systems theory, we describe empirical and computational studies from a range of domains, including motor development, the Piagetian A-not-B task, infant visual recognition, visual working memory capacity, and language learning. We conclude by advocating for a broader application of dynamic systems approaches to understanding cognitive and behavioral development, laying out the remaining barriers we see and suggested ways to overcome them.
Regarding the two cognitive theories, I would be more apt to apply Vygotskian principles to my classroom. I believe that principles such as scaffolding, co-constructed knowledge, dialogue, and cultural tools are all important components of a student's knowledge acquisition. By helping students within their zone of proximal development, we offer them useful learning strategies which they internalize and utilize later. Piaget proposed many applicable educational strategies, such as discovery learning with an emphasis on activity and play. However, Vygotsky incorporated the importance of social interactions and a co-constructed knowledge base to the theory of cognitive development. 781b155fdc